Saturday, November 16, 2019
Of Mice and Men shows how factors beyond the characters control prevent them from leading fulfilling lives Essay Example for Free
Of Mice and Men shows how factors beyond the characters control prevent them from leading fulfilling lives Essay John Steinbecks Of Mice and Men is set, and was written in the time of The Great Depression, 1929. During The Great Depression there were as many as fifteen million people, in the United States of America alone, left unemployed and with no way to feed their families. The Great Depression was caused by the Wall Street crash. The Wall Street Crash, when stocks and shares plummeted, resulted in America as a world trading country loosing gargantuan amounts money due to the many of the large companies of America going bankrupt. Because the companies went bankrupt they could no longer afford to pay any workers, this meant that they lost their jobs. Even the farms in the country could not stay running because of the Dust Bowl effect, this is when there is prolonged drought and the earth becomes like dust, entirely unsuitable to grow anything in. With a vast amount of the nation unemployed, people were desperately searching for work, simply in order to survive. When the idea came about that people could go and work the land in California, people jumped at the chance despite the appalling pay. The cruel thing is that the employers in California had paid their original workers more than they paid the migrant workers, and the migrant workers only worked because they were so desperate. The employers took advantage of their situation for their own benefit. It was very much every man for himself in that time, though in this novel there is an exception, Lennie and George, who for Steinbeck are the stereotypical migrant workers. I believe George to be living a fulfilled life within the dream he shares with Lennie and, later on in the novel Candy: the popular American dream of the period, to own a piece of land and be entirely self-sufficient from that land. The reason I think this is because George is constantly saying things such as well do her, well fix up that little old place an well go live there, this shows that they are living in metaphoric clouds (their dream), a far nicer place than reality, Lennie and George seam to be willing to live through anything just to achieve it. The fact that George lives for a dream, one that he truly didnt believe would happen, Jesus Christ! I bet we could swing her! this also shows that now George actually believes in himself it will happen, George would have no reason to dream if he was content in reality. Whilst living a content life inside the sanction of his dream, it is clear that he is not content in reality otherwise he would have no cause to dream of a better place. Another reason for George not being content could be that he had been burdened with Lennie all of his life and thus not been able to live his own life and be his own person, George says to Lennie in the novel that he could have a much better life without Lennie When I think of the swell time I could have without you, I go nuts. I never get no peace. This shows that even George feels Lennie as burden some of the time, if he felt this all of the time he could just get rid of Lennie, but he doesnt. I believe Lennie feels much the same as George in that he lives for the dream also, whenever Lennie is uncomfortable with his surroundings in any way he will ask George to tell the story of the dream to him so that he can escape reality into his imagination, as if in fact the dream is where he wants to be. Tell about the house George Lennie begs. An the rabbits. George has told Lennie that he can tend to the rabbits in their house, because Lennie is very simple this sense of responsibility and his fetish for soft things (the rabbits) provides the perfect attraction for Lennie to the Dream. Because Lennie also has to dream of a better place shows that his life is not being fulfilled on the ranch. If this was not evidence enough Lennie even says George, I dont like it here George clearly showing that he does not want to be there. The only woman on the ranch, Curleys wife, also I believe lives an unfulfilled life because firstly all she is known as throughout the novel is Curleys wife, making he sound like a possession of Curleys. This says a lot about the period in which this novel was written, women were treated as inferior beings at this time, and I personally find it hard to see how you could live a fulfilled life when you are being put down constantly. The men on the ranch also have very dim views on her such as Georges opinion of her, I dont care what she says and what she does. I seen em poison before, but I never seen no piece of jailbait worse than her, not only does this starve her for attention it puts her down also. Curleys wife also has a dream, a dream of becoming famous, as she tells Lennie He was gonna put me in the movies, showing that she cannot be content in reality either. Curleys wife is naturally seeking attention because she has married a man who she hardly ever sees and no one is willing to talk to her: Why cant I talk to you? I never get to talk to nobody. I get awful lonely, and she believes she should be in the movies, a place where you will always be in the spotlight so to speak, quite the opposite to how she is being treated on the ranch. Candy is the crippled swamper on the ranch, and is only able to do menial jobs around the ranch; this offers him no real fulfilment. Despite this Candys life amounts to the work he does on the ranch and his dog, these are all he lives for When they can me here I wisht somebodyd shoot me. As time progresses Candy realises that he has not got long left and with his dog, a huge part of his life having just been killed out of sympathy, he asks to join George and Lennies dream instead of his life being over once he has been told to leave the ranch Spose I went in with you guys. In wishing somebody would shoot him when he was told to leave the ranch shows that Candy fears for his future and where he has to go to when he is told to leave. To live your life in fear of your future, not knowing where you are going, not having control of you own life cannot be a very secure and pleasant mental environment to live in; Candy therefore cant have a very fulfilled life. Curley is a successful welterweight boxer, but unfortunately didnt quite make it to the top, instead he is stuck on his fathers ranch, a place where he doesnt always get the respect/fear he craves, so he has to be rude and hostile in his talking Well, nex time you answer when youre spoke to. This shows that Curley is not living the life he wants to live, thus making his life unfulfilled. Curley has a huge problem with intimidation, meaning bigger people intimidate him easily. He is also obsessed with power and authority: Curleys like a lot of little guys. He hates big guys, and on a ranch full of large men, he does not always have the security he wants. Curley is in a loveless marriage despite what he thinks he feels for his wife, she refuses to pay him the same attention: he aint a nice fella. Curley does not have his life going his way at all, he is stuck living somewhere he does not want to be, without the power he wants and with people he does not like; his fathers ranch. On top of this, he is in a marriage where the only love is on his behalf. This all leads me to the conclusion that Curley does not a have a fulfilled life. Crooks is a black stable buck in the novel, and during this time black people were regarded as inferior beings, this leaves Crooks open to much discrimination. Using Crooks as a stereotype, Steinbeck tries to show the relationship between black and white people in America in the 1930s. Throughout the novel, Crooks is treated with great disrespect, for example he is constantly being referred to as a God damn nigger. Crooks also gets segregated from the rest of the workers, this makes him incredibly lonely, we can tell this from a touching extract between Lennie and Crooks Crooks says gently, Maybe you can see now. You got George. You know hes goin to come back. Spose you didnt have nobody. Spose you couldnt go into the bunk-house and play rummy cause you was black. Howd you like that? Crooks is insulted countless times every single day of his life, the name nigger is used such as the term mate is used today, so without meaning to insult Crooks people did it every time they chose to speak to him. Every time when Crooks elevates himself above his usual status by making the odd chance comment or voicing his opinion, he is simply thrown back down to the ground. For example Crooks began to introduce his opinion into a conversation and was quite bluntly told by Curleys wife, you keep your place, then Nigger. I could get you strung up on a tree so easy it aint even funny. I find it near impossible to even think that Crooks could lead a fulfilled life when he is treated like a dirty animal, and his thoughts or feelings are considered worthless. My thoughts are that Slim is the only main character in the whole novel that possibly leads a fulfilled life. Unlike Crooks, Slim is paid much respect by all of the other workers. Candy refers to Slim as Hell of a nice fella, and comments are also made about peoples reactions when he speaks, all talk stopped when he spoke. This gives Slim a sense of belonging and importance. Slim is a highly skilled worker and the ranch would not be the same without him, and he knows this, so do the other workers on the ranch, Hes capable of driving ten, sixteen even twenty mules with a single line to the leaders. It is comments and views such as these which make Slim feel needed. Slim is favoured by all on the ranch, perhaps especially by Crooks and Curleys wife as he treats them without any prejudice or discriminative views. For example, Slim is very polite and actually pays a compliment to Curleys wife Hi, Good-lookin'. Throughout the novel, Slim does not mention any other life that he might prefer, nor does he show any evidence of him having a dream, this shows that he must be reasonably content with his life on the ranch as he has no cause to dream. I believe Slim to be the only main character in the novel to live a fulfilled life because he is clearly respected by all members of the ranch and very much favoured by them. Slim has security and he is also very independent, because of everyones admiration he also feels good in himself, Slim must have a great sense of fulfilment in his life. In a time where everyone had to make the most of what they had, only one person in this novel has succeeded, and that in my eyes would be Slim. It was a dog eat dog world during the Great Depression and Slim manages to rise above all of the bad things that have happened to him due to it. He manages to lift himself up above everyone else who were stuck in the rut of their own self pity, he manipulated the situation and uses it to his advantage. He took the wrong things in the other peoples lives and offered solutions for example he gave George someone to talk to, or the fact that he was polite to those who were treated like dirt, this made people like and respect him which is what drove him on inspite or the Depression.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Through many civilizations, a culture arises as a dominant force that is seen with majority of power and influence. This dominant culture is able to affect subordinate cultures through its influential economic or political power--to impose its values, language, and ways of behaving. This imposition leads to social barriers between different cultures including racism and economic differences, as one culture is seen as superior over another. In history, social barriers have been established across the world; in America, there were segregation laws and the civil rights movement. Martin Luther King Jr., a civil rights activist, wrote the speech Ã¢â¬Å"I Have a Dream,Ã¢â¬ during a time of segregation of blacks and whites in America. The speech addresses the issues of racism as a barrier in culture, which is supposed to bring equality and inclusion to everyone. In the poem Ã¢â¬Å"The Theme for English BÃ¢â¬ by Langston Hughes, the author discusses the influence of dominant cu lture on a colored person in a school. Race is an aspect of dominant culture and the color of your skin is a barrier between dominant culture and lesser cultures, and it can be overcome by the use of education. Race is an aspect of dominant culture as it is a prejudgment of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s classes and social standards by the assessment of their skin color. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Theme for English BÃ¢â¬ the author of the poem talks about dominant culture in a school setting from a colored studentÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. The colored student feels that separation of the school is a sign of dominant culture: Ã¢â¬Å"I went to school there, then Durham, then here to this college on the hill above Harlem. I am the only colored student in my classÃ¢â¬ (Hughes). The student feels isolated from the group because of h... ...rson to be more than can be imagined and this leads to acceptance and equality in cultures. In conclusion, race is an aspect of dominant culture and is a social barrier that can be broken through the use of education. In the narrative poem, Ã¢â¬Å"The Theme of English BÃ¢â¬ by Langston Hughes, it talks about the social barriers in education systems like colleges. Race can bring people together and also keep groups apart as cultures as another culture is seen to be more superior to the other. To stop segregation and splitting between groups education can be used to build one dominant culture that includes everyone for what they are made of and not by personÃ¢â¬â¢s race. Martin Luther King saw that race was an issue and believed bringing cultures together brought to light a solution of uniting groups together under one dominant culture of being separated by social barriers.
Monday, November 11, 2019
One of the latest inventions developed by researchers from Stellenbosch University in South Africa is a one of a kind Ã¢â¬Å"tea bagÃ¢â¬ that makes use of nanotechnology to clean drinking water, making it free from contaminants and bacteria. It would be interesting to note that the Ã¢â¬Å"tea bagÃ¢â¬ is made of the same material that is used to make the actual tea bags. The only difference is that in the Stellenbosch researchersÃ¢â¬â¢ invention the ingredients are nanoscale fibers and grains of carbon, reports io9. Both fibers and grains of carbon filter water from all hazardous contaminants. In order to purify the water, the user needs to place the tea bag in the neck of a water bottle. The tea bag filters the water when the person drinks from the bottle. One bag can be used to filter up to 1 liter of water and it costs less than a half of an American cent. Loopwing Korea Unveils Solar-Powered Streetlights, Wind Power Generators Having the goal of reducing the demand for grid electricity, a South Korean company decided to create a new type of streetlights and renewable energy generators. Looping Korea presented its latest inventions at the Renewable Energy World 2010. Its loopwing-type wind power generators boast a one-of-a-kind loop-shaped wing structure that allows generating electricity from winds that have speed as low as 2m/s. In addition, the design also makes it possible for the device to produce power without much noise. One of the models of loopwing type wind power generator is called the TRONC. It features a hybrid solar and wind energy generator and it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t need extra source of energy. Besides, the streetlight can be even connected to such external devices as LED display systems, informs Aving. TRONC represents a complex that includes a small windmill and sunlight panel mounted on top. It also features a loop wing style blade of that is 1. 5 meters in diameter. Latest Invention: LED Light Bulbs that Makes Use of Salmon DNA Researchers from the University of Connecticut recently unveiled their latest invention, which is a long-lasting LED light bulb that makes use of salmon DNA. Scientists added two different fluorescent colors to the DNA molecules, the dyes being spaced from each other at a distance ranging from 2 to 10 nanometers. After the colors were added, the DNA molecules are spun into nanofibers. The UV light that produces LED is then covered with DNA nanofibers. David Walt, a chemistry professor at Tufts University, explained: Ã¢â¬Å"When UV light is shined on the material, one dye absorbs the energy and produces blue light. If the other dye molecule is at the right distance, it will absorb part of that blue-light energy and emit orange light. Ã¢â¬ By changing the ratios of dyes, one can adjust the quality of light, for example turning cool white into warm white. But just like all latest inventions, this one still requires more studying. Besides there is currently no information regarding how many lumens per watt the salmon DNA LEDs generate, which is why it is too early to say anything about longer life or improved light quality. New research shows that exposing polymer molecular sieve membranes to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the presence of oxygen produces highly permeable and selective membranes for more efficient molecular-level separation, an essential process in everything from water purification to controlling gas emissions. Published in the journal Nature Communications, the study finds that short-wavelength UV exposure of the sponge-like polymer membranes in the presence of oxygen allows the formation of ozone within the polymer matrix. The ozone induces oxidation of the polymer and chops longer polymer chains into much shorter segments, increasing the density of its surface. By controlling this Ã¢â¬ËdensificationÃ¢â¬â¢, resulting in smaller cavities on the membrane surface, scientists have found they are able to create a greatly enhanced Ã¢â¬ËsieveÃ¢â¬â¢ for molecular-level separation Ã¢â¬â as these Ã¢â¬Ëmicro-cavitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ improve the ability of the membrane to selectively separate, to a significant degree, molecules with various sizes , remaining highly permeable for small molecules while effectively blocking larger ones. The research from the University of CambridgeÃ¢â¬â¢s Cavendish Laboratory partly mirrors nature, as our planetÃ¢â¬â¢s ozone layer is created from oxygen hit by ultraviolet light irradiated from the sun. Researchers have now demonstrated that the Ã¢â¬ËselectivityÃ¢â¬â¢ of these newly modified membranes could be enhanced to a remarkable level for practical applications, with the permeability potentially increasing between anywhere from a hundred to a thousand times greater than the current commercially-used polymer membranes. Scientists believe such research is an important step towards more energy efficient and environmentally friendly gas-separation applications in major global energy processes Ã¢â¬â ranging from purification of natural gases and hydrogen for sustainable energy production, the production of enriched oxygen from air for cleaner combustion of fossil fuels and more-efficient power generation, and the capture of carbon dioxide and other harmful greenhouse gases. Chemists at Indiana University Bloomington have created a symmetrical, five-sided macrocycle that is easy to synthesize and has characteristics that may help expand the molecular tool box available to researchers in biology, chemistry and materials sciences. The molecule, which the researchers call cyanostar, was developed in the lab of Amar Flood, associate professor in the Department of Chemistry in the College of Arts and Sciences. It is described in an article in the journal Nature Chemistry, scheduled for publication in August and available online. Doctoral student Semin Lee is the lead author of the article, Ã¢â¬Å"A pentagonal cyanostar macrocycle with cyanostilbene CH donors binds anions and forms dialkylphosphate (3)rotaxanes. Ã¢â¬ Flood and Chun-Hsing Chen, research crystallographer in the IU Molecular Structure Center, are co-authors. Ã¢â¬Å"Macrocycles have been at the heart of molecular recognition experiments in recent years,Ã¢â¬ Flood said. Ã¢â¬Å"But theyÃ¢â¬â¢re a dime a dozen. To make a contribution, you have to raise the bar. Cyanostar raises the bar not only because it is easy to make, but for its unprecedented ability to bind with large, negatively charged ions, suggesting potential applications ranging from environmental remediation of perchlorate and molecular sensing of biological phosphates, to processes related to the life cycle of lithium ion batteries. The creation follows from earlier work in FloodÃ¢â¬â¢s lab showing that organic molecules could be designed to remove negatively charged ions fro m solutions. While the molecules have a neutral charge overall, their structure causes them to exhibit electro-positive properties and bind with weakly coordinating anions that were once thought to be incapable of being captured by molecular receptors. breakthrough in fuel cell technology. Scientists from Julich and Berlin have developed a material for converting hydrogen and oxygen to water using a tenth of the typical amount of platinum that was previously required. With the aid of state-of-the-art electron microscopy, the researchers discovered that the function of the nanometre-scale catalyst particles is decisively determined by their geometric shape and atomic structure. This discovery opens up new paths for further improving catalysts for energy conversion and storage. The results have been published in the current issue of the respected journal Nature Materials (DOI: 10. 1038/nmat3668). Hydrogen-powered fuel cells are regarded as a clean alternative to conventional combustion engines, as, aside from electric energy, the only substance produced during operation is water. At present, the implementation of hydrogen fuel cells is being hindered by the high material costs of platinum. Large quantities of the expensive noble metal are still required for the electrodes in the fuel cells at which the chemical conversion processes take place. Without the catalytic effect of the platinum, it is not currently possible to achieve the necessary conversion rates. As catalysis takes place at the surface of the platinum only, material can be saved and, simultaneously, the efficiency of the electrodes improved by using platinum nanoparticles, thus increasing the ratio of platinum surface to material required. Although the tiny particles are around ten thousand times smaller than the diameter of a human hair, the surface area of a kilogram of such particles is equivalent to that of several football fields. Still more platinum can be saved by mixing it with other, less valuable metals, such as nickel or copper. Scientists from Forschungszentrum Julich and Technische Universitat Berlin have succeeded in developing efficient metallic catalyst particles for converting hydrogen and oxygen to water using only a tenth of the typical amount of platinum that was previously required. Researchers from Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), S. Korea, developed a novel, simple method to synthesize hierarchically nanoporous frameworks of nanocrystalline metal oxides such as magnesia and ceria by the thermal conversion of well-designed metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The novel material developed by the UNIST research team has exceptionally high CO2 adsorption capacity which could pave the way to save the Earth from CO2 pollution. Nanoporous materials consist of organic or inorganic frameworks with a regular, porous structure. Because of their uniform pore sizes they have the property of letting only certain substances pass through, while blocking others. Nanoporous metal oxide materials are ubiquitous in materials science because of their numerous potential applications in various areas, including adsorption, catalysis, energy conversion and storage, optoelectronics, and drug delivery. While synthetic strategies for the preparation of siliceous nanoporous materials are well-established, non-siliceous metal oxide-based nanoporous materials still present challenges. A description of the new research was published (Web) on May 7 in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. (Title: Nanoporous Metal Oxides with Tunable and Nanocrystalline Frameworks via Conversion of Metal-Organic Frameworks) This article will be also highlighted in the EditorÃ¢â¬â¢s Choice of the journal Science. Ionic liquid formulation improves herbicide Scientists in Poland and the US have reformulated the herbicide dicamba to reduce its environmental impact. The use of chemicals in agriculture is widespread, however, there are increasing concerns about their other environmental effects. Dicamba, used to control broadleaf weeds in grain fields and grasslands, is known to enter the environment via water runoff and evaporation following its application. In an attempt to reduce its volatility, a team led by Robin Rogers, from the University of Alabama, and Juliusz Pernak, from Poznan University of Technology, has formulated dicamba as an ionic liquid. Ionic liquids are liquid salts, consisting of a cation and an anion. Deprotonated dicamba assumed the role of anion and the team tested different cations to see which combination was most effective. The team formulated 28 new dicamba ionic liquids using hydrophobic cations that had surfactant or antimicrobial activities. Ã¢â¬ËWe have always thought of ionic liquids as dual-acting; that is, one can combine an active ingredient in both ions into a single salt,Ã¢â¬â¢ exaplins Rogers. By forming a hydrophobic ionic liquid, the water solubility of the herbicide was reduced. The new ionic liquids showed lower volatility, increased thermal stability and improved efficacy in field tests over the parent dicamba. Not only are the ionic liquid forms desirable because of the potential for lower environmental impact, they actually work better, leading to lower application rates of the chemicals,Ã¢â¬â¢ Rogers adds. Bill Johnson from Purdue University, Indiana, US, an expert in the development of weed management systems, comments that Ã¢â¬Ëif a less volatile form of the herbicide can still provide the same level of weed control, the concerns about off-site movement will be greatly reduced. Ã¢â¬â¢ He also says that this approach could be taken with other weak acid herbicides, such as 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). The next step for Rogers and co-workers is to investigate other cations with the dicamba anion to create a herbicide with other useful properties. Sustainable iron catalyst for clean hydrogenation 27 June 2013Emma Eley An international team of chemists has reported a clean and green way to perform one of the most important industrial reactions for pharmaceutical and petrochemical synthesis. Platinum group metals are currently the catalysts of choice for hydrogenations due to their high activity. However, they are also expensive, toxic and very rare. Now, in a joint project between McGill University, Canada, and the RIKEN Institute, Japan, a polymer supported iron catalyst has demonstrated excellent performance as a hydrogenation catalyst in the most environmentally-friendly of reaction mediums Ã¢â¬â water. Iron is abundant and far less toxic than the precious metal catalysts currently used, but its use in industry is limited by it rusting in the presence of oxygen and water. Ã¢â¬ËWhen rusted, iron nanoparticles stop acting as hydrogenation catalysts,Ã¢â¬â¢ explains project leader Audrey Moores from McGill University. The system we report solves this limitation and makes iron active in water. Ã¢â¬â¢ Amphiphilic polymers, developed by Yasuhiro Uozumi at the RIKEN Institute, are used to protect the iron catalyst from being deactivated by water while still allowing reactants to reach the catalystÃ¢â¬â¢s active site. After overcoming some synthetic difficulties involving the use of toxic iron pentacarbonyl, the team showed that their robust catalyst was tolerant to water and could be viewed as a realistic competitor to the platinum series metals. The authors demonstrate that the catalyst can be used in a flow system with little leaching, allowing for continuous hydrogenation at the multi-gram scale,Ã¢â¬â¢ says Jianliang Xiao, a catalysis expert at the University of Liverpool, UK. Ã¢â¬ËAs it stands now, the catalytic activity is still low; that said, the study presents an excellent example of green chemistry in practice Ã¢â¬â total atom-economic reduction in flow with an inexpensive and safe iron catalyst. Ã¢â¬â¢Future work from the team will focus on developing and understanding the protective power of the polymer. We are also interested in developing this catalyst for other industrially relevant reactions,Ã¢â¬â¢ says Moores. Titanium takes on HaberÃ¢â¬âBosch process The synthesis of ammonia under milder condition, using less energy and fewer resources, has moved a step closer. Scientists in Japan have created a trinuclear titanium polyhydride complex that can cleave the dinitrogen bond and form nitrogenÃ¢â¬âhydrogen bonds at ambient temperature and pressure without additional reducing agents or proton sources. 1 Nitrogen is the most abundant gas in our atmosphere, essential to life, yet largely inert. Some microbes generate bioavailable nitrogen by reducing nitrogen to ammonia. Industrially, ammonia is produced via the HaberÃ¢â¬âBosch process, which is so energy intensive that it consumes 1% of the energy generated globally. The process combines nitrogen and hydrogen over activated iron surfaces to generate ammonia for use as a fertiliser or as a chemical feedstock. This titanium complex could be part of the answer to producing cheaper fertiliser Ã © Science/AAAS The intrinsic inertness of nitrogen has made it challenging to discover metal complexes that can both bind and activate it. By experimental and computational studies, we determined that the dinitrogen reduction by a trinuclear titanium hydride complex proceeds sequentially through scission of a nitrogen molecule bonded to three titanium atoms in an end-on-side-on fashion, followed by NÃ¢â¬âH bond formation,Ã¢â¬â¢ says study author Zhaomin Hou, of the RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Japan. Ã¢â¬ËThe hydride ligands serve as the source of both electron and proton. Ã¢â¬â¢ Cleaving the NÃ¢â¬âN bond and forming NÃ¢â¬âH bonds directly from a hydride complex has been seen only rarely, with some f the most influential work coming from Michael Fryzuk at the University of British Columbia, Canada, who has championed the Ã¢â¬Ëhydride routeÃ¢â¬â¢ to dinitrogen complexes. 2 Ã¢â¬ËThe active sites of both major N2 reduction catalysts Ã¢â¬â nitrogenases and the HaberÃ¢â¬âBosch process Ã¢â¬â have hydride species as their resting states, but in neither case is the detailed mechan ism of hydrogen loss and nitrogen cleavage known,Ã¢â¬â¢ says Patrick Holland of the University of Rochester, US. The authors, he adds, Ã¢â¬Ëconclusively determined the structures of many of the intermediates along the pathway, giving insight into possible structures and pathways of intermediates on the catalystsÃ¢â¬â¢. Fryzuk, who wrote an accompanying perspective,3 says the paper adds important fundamental knowledge about potential elementary reactions such as cleaving NÃ¢â¬âN triple bonds and forming NÃ¢â¬âH bonds, which are relevant to the HaberÃ¢â¬âBosch process. He predicts it Ã¢â¬Ëwill change the way people think about N2 activation so that in the future perhaps a soluble, suitably designed multi-metallic hydride complex will be able to both activate and functionalise molecular nitrogen productively to form ammonia or some other higher-value nitrogen containing materialÃ¢â¬â¢. However, there still challenges to overcome to make this process practically useful, Hou says. But if successful the low temperature, low pressure synthesis of ammonia in smaller reactors is on the cards. Latest Invention: WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s First Battery Powered by Paper Sony has recently announced it managed to come up with a battery powered by paper. However, the whole process is more complex than simply using a standard paper. The batteries developed by the Japanese tech giant make use of enzymes in order to break down the glucose found in the cellulose of the paper (which by the way is made of wood pulp fibers). It would be interesting to note that Sony was able to demonstrate its bio-battery. The demo took place at the Eco-Products exhibition in Tokyo. During the presentation the paper was placed into a mix of water and enzymes. After a couple of minutes the liquid started generating enough power to activate a small fan. After enzymes broke down the paper, they were left with sugar that was produced from cellulose. Then they were able to process the sugar to produce hydrogen ions and electrons. The latter then went through an outer circuit to produce power. Mixed with oxygen in the air, the hydrogen ions were then able to create H2O. Ã¢â¬Å"This is the same mechanism with which termites eat wood to get energy. Bio batteries are environmentally friendly and have great potential as they use no metals or harmful chemicals,Ã¢â¬ explained Chisato Kitsukawa, a PR manager at Sony. Scientists use electron Ã¢â¬ËinkÃ¢â¬â¢ to write on graphene Ã¢â¬ËpaperÃ¢â¬â¢ Nanoscale writing offers a reliable way to record information at extremely high densities, making it a promising tool for patterning nanostructures for a variety of electronic applications. In a recent study, scientists have demonstrated a simple yet effective way to write and draw on the nanoscale by using an electron beam to selectively break the carbon atoms in single-layer graphene. The researchers, Wei Zhang and Luise Theil Kuhn at the Technical University of Denmark in Roskilde, Denmark; and Qiang Zhang and Meng-Qiang Zhao at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, have published their study on using electron ink to write on graphene paper in a recent issue of Nanotechnology. Ã¢â¬Å"The ability to record information has been directly correlated with the process of human civilization since ancient times,Ã¢â¬ Wei Zhang told Phys. org. Ã¢â¬Å"Paper and ink are the two essential factors to record history. Currently, information communication has proceeded onto an unprecedented scale. Ã¢â¬ Nanoscale writing, which is essentially the manipulation of matter on the nanoscale, has already been widely explored. The current methods can be classified into two groups: lithography (top down), which imprints a pre-made pattern on a substrate, but has restricted resolution; and self-assembly (bottom up), which manipulates atoms or molecules individually, but faces challenges with controllability. Herein, the researchers proposed a combination method based on both types of methods to overcome the difficulties of each, which they demonstrated on Ã¢â¬Å"the thinnest paper in the worldÃ¢â¬ : graphene. Ã¢â¬Å"The rise of graphene calls for broad attention,Ã¢â¬ Qiang Zhang said. Ã¢â¬Å"One distinct characteristic is its flatness, which provides the perfect opportunity to be regarded as the thinnest paper. In order to directly write on this ultimate thin paper, the suitable ink must be found. At the small scale, typically nanoscale, the ink candidate ust meet the qualification as both high-resolution writing and visualization function. Therefore, high-energy electrons in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) are the best choice. The electron beam can be manipulated as ink for direct writing, but is by itself invisible. Ã¢â¬ When an electron beam (green) writes on graphene paper, some of the carbon atoms in the graphene are kicked off, and external carbon atoms are deposit ed onto the dangling bonds to form an irregular structure that appears as Ã¢â¬Å"ink. Ã¢â¬ Credit: Wei Zhang, et al. Ã ©2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. As the researchers explain, the carbon atoms in graphene are sensitive to a variety of irradiation effects. Here, a 300 keV electron beam was used to break local carbon-carbon bonds in single-layer graphene. When the bonds break, carbon atoms are kicked off, resulting in dangling bonds that are free to attract new carbon species from the vacuum and on the graphene surface. These new amorphous carbon species become absorbed onto the dangling bonds to stabilize the edge, forming only along the scanning direction of the electron beam.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Executive summary This marketing research report is about the strategy of Pizza Hut for entering a new market. This research includes the preferences of the customers for going to any fast-food restaurant and particularly to our. We collected primary data from people for our research. While we were making our questionnaire we focused mainly on questions that showed the preference of the fast-food customers. Especially when we talk about food quality, price, services, interior, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ We got the questionnaires filled by 28 people from our population. They found the questionnaire nice and easy and we really could analyze their answers. The population for our research consists of students of The IUC College and people from all over the country. We made the connection through some websites. This analysis helped us to come out with new ideas about the future sales and profitability andÃ what our brand needs to maintain its image. Introduction Pizza hut is an American restaurant chain and international franchise that offers different styles of pizza including pasta, salad, breadsticks, garlic bread and buffalo wings. Pizza Hut is a subsidiary of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest restaurant company Yum! Brands.Inc. As of 2012, there were more than 6,000 Pizza Hut restaurants in the United States, and more than 5,139 store locations in 94 other countries and territories around the world. Pizza Hut was founded in 1958 by brothers Dan and Frank Carney in their hometown of Wichita, Kansas. They borrowed $600 from their mother to start a business with partner John Bender. They chose the name Ã¢â¬Å"Pizza HutÃ¢â¬ since the sign they purchased only had enough space for nine characters and spaces. In the early 1960s Pizza Hut grew on the strength of aggressive marketing of the pizza restaurant idea. The first Pizza Hut franchise was opened in Canada. This was followed by the establishment of the International Pizza Hut Franchise Holders Association. In 1977 Pizza Hut merged with PepsiCo, becoming a division of the global soft drink and food conglomerate. Sales that year reached $436 million, and a new $10 million dollar headquarters office opened in Wichita. The brand has been rewarded as the best restaurant chain internationally. In 1986, Pizza Huts started its Home Delivery service. In 2007, Pizza Hut offered online ordering at all of their 65,000 locations. In 2008, Pizza Hut introduced Total Mobile Access- the ability for customers to order by text messaging or using their web enabled cell phones. Research Our major marketing strategy has always been to satisfy the customer by offering the best, including cleanliness, hospitality, accuracy, maintenance, product quality and speed. Our brand has always been friendly and familiar. We have always done our positioning by keeping in view two basic factors: Quality and frequency. Our brand uses low price meal and expensive for high end. We collected primary data from people for our research. While we were making our questionnaire we focused mainly onÃ questions that showed the preference of the fast-food customers. Especially when we talk about food quality, price, services, interior, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ We got the questionnaires filled by 28 people from our population. They found the questionnaire nice and easy and we really could analyze their answers. The population for our research were students of The IUC College and people from all over the country. We made the connection through some websites. We found out that most of the people are really aware of our brand and they have even visited our restaurants. 10 out of 28 people have never heard of our brand and products. We asked all the people who have visited our restaurant, are they satisfied with the service and the ingredients in the food. All of them were undoubtedly agree that the service in the restaurant is extremely good and all of the ingredients are high quality. We became aware of the information that the majority of the fast-food restaurant customers are the people between the ages of 18 and 30. Nowadays the majority of young people canÃ¢â¬â¢t cook and they are really impatient for food. Some of them donÃ¢â¬â¢t have resources.desire and time for cooking. So the fast food restaurants are really the best choice for people between these ages. Furthermore, we found out that our potential customers are incredibly price sensitive. 16 out of 28 people preferred to give 5 to 10 leva for our services than 3 to 5 leva. This helped us to understand that our customers are willing to pay more if the service responds to their money but not too much. After our detailed analysis we concluded that quality is the most important factor which can affect our potential customers. People really prefer to eat in a fast-food restaurant which has normal prices, good service and nice interior. People have gotten tired of going to the same places like Mcdonalds and Subway. They want something new, fresh and with fast home delivery. 4 PÃ¢â¬â¢s Product: Salads, Pizza, Pasta, Beverage, Deserts Price: 5 to 10 leva Promotion: TV ads for now Place: We should place our restaurants in the Mall or somewhere in the centre of Sofia and Varna Conclusion From our research we conclude that we definitely should focus on consumer satisfaction. This is possible if we have control over the quality of the food, service and control over prices. We have to make sure that we can create a friendly physical environment. Our restaurant must become like a second home for our consumers. And we think that our potential consumers in Bulgaria would be very pleased with our services. Recommendations We should do some strong TV advertising. We should open branches in more cities, such as Varna, Burgas, Veliko Tarnovo We should have at least one restaurant in the mall. The competition will be extremely big but with our brand image and variety of food and beverages we think we could easily achieve successful market share. References http://uk.answers.yahoo.com/ http://www.marketingteacher.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Pizza_Hut
Thursday, November 7, 2019
How the policies of new right and new deal have changed from the 1970s till now The WritePass Journal
How the policies of new right and new deal have changed from the 1970s till now How the policies of new right and new deal have changed from the 1970s till now IntroductionBibliographyRelated Introduction This assignment will be looking at how the policies of new right and new deal have changed from the 1970s till now; it will also be looking at the changes that have occurred from the second war. This assignment will also be looking at the new right and new labour, what Beveridge and Keynes were about.it will also be looking at the consensus from the late 1960s and how social scientist retrieved new evidence that poverty and homelessness still exist, the rediscovery era that problems prior to the welfare state are still here. It will then look at the resultant rise in state spending and intervention. It will look at the economic crisis- long term benefits were to blame and it was the underservingÃ¢â¬â¢s fault. Political crisis will also be mentioned that fewer people are voting and the green party are not concerned with bankruptcy. The crisis also involved social and internal contradictions. It will then mention the conservative government- rolling back the state, privatisation, cen tralisation, tax cuts for the rich and benefit cuts for the poor. Finally it will look at the new labour-welfare to work, moralising and coalition government changes. There are many different arguments into how the welfare state started developing and attitudes towards the welfare state are very different, The new right came about in the 1970s the new right was a very strong political force and held a very powerful position in many countries throughout the 1970s and 1980s, they came about when economic difficulties overtook global economy in the years after 1973. They also reacted to the consistent amount of public spending that was occurring throughout the 1960s. There are many reasons in which the new right believe in why the welfare state has involved its self in the welfare and industrial societies. What the new right argues is that two false conclusions had been made from the World War 2 wartime experience. The first false conclusion that had been made was that during the war collective purpose is possible and if that is the case then it is also possible in the peace time, and the second false conclusion was that the government had planned th e war and therefore it would be easy for the government to plan the peace. The new right sees that the governments war time successes, and the government shown what it was able to do through the wartime and therefore it should do it. The new right blame two people for the new politics, in whom contributed so much into the continuous development of the welfare state and these two people were known as Keynes and Beveridge. There were three things in particular that the new right blamed Keynes for doing and these three things were that firstly Keynes didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like the profit motive at all neither did Keynes like the pursuit of gain, secondly Keynes freed the governments fromÃ budgeting legitimate and finally the ways in which Keynes writings were perceived that Ã¢â¬Å" set the economical literature in Britain on a journey that industrial organisations and the employment of high fraction of the labour force on productive and profitable work were considered to be of secondary imp ortance. (Wiener, 1981 cited in V,G and P.W 1994:16). According to Alcock (2000) there was two simple facts based on evidence for the cause of the economic crisis, the first fact was that the demand for services and bigger and greater service provision, will always take the biggest priority over the resources that were available especially financial within any advanced western society. The second fact was that the changes of demographic patterns in western notions, such as the increase of dependant elderly alongside with the dwindling amount of individuals of working age, the tax base to be reduced wherever it can be financed in any of the welfare states. There were an enormous amount of factors which emerged that argued the political crisis, one of these was that a number of commentators started to question whether or not the welfare state was still needed as it was unable to offer the things it had originallyÃ promised to set out to do. Instead it seemed to be causing positive harm, especially on the responsibility of individuals, it was also suggested by the political crisis that the political institutions were being questioned due to their legitimacy ruling of society because they were in the process of decline. This crisis continued to manifest and this was causing less support for the electoral for the biggest political parties. It had also been said that the political crisis had reflected so much on the bureaucratic control over the welfare state, this meant that the bureaucratises would become bigger not taking into consideration of the efficient., so here is where it suggest that social policies have failed to sort out these social issues when these issues were something they set out to deal with in the first place, it could be said they have in fact made the social issues a lot worse or probably started off a whole lot of new ones. With the rise of divorce, illegitimacy and single parenthood it is clearly shown to be evidence for one of the causes for the social crisis of the welfare state,.one of the main issues and probably the most damaging to address was that of internal contradiction as the welfare state was unable to address this very issue. This assignment will now move onto the Ã¢â¬Å"Big FiveÃ¢â¬ and these five issues came about by the Beveridge Report. Beveridge did a report that identified what he called as the Ã¢â¬Å"Big FiveÃ¢â¬ and it was apparently the Ã¢â¬Å"Big FiveÃ¢â¬ that was stopping Britain from becoming a modern society. The Ã¢â¬Å"Big FiveÃ¢â¬ were known as these five things want ignorance, disease, squalor and idleness. Want referred to people that were in need of financial support to keep them from becoming ill and keep them just above the poverty line. Second was ignorance and this was mainly aimed at poor education. Thirdly was disease and this was to do with the lack of national health care, it needed to be paid for as in these days it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t free. The forth was squalor and this was due to poor housing and slums, and finally idleness was due to the depression of unemployed individuals if all of the Ã¢â¬Å"big five Ã¢â¬Å"could be tackled then Britain would move forward. (Alcock 2000). The conservatives won election in 1979 , Margaret thatcher- rolling back of the state, gradual built up of the state its involving itself more and more, government gets too involved, pulling out Ã¢â¬Å"laissez fraireÃ¢â¬ . Rolling back the frontiers of the state (people losing homes) state referred to new right, people become lazy and need pushing back into employment. 1979 conservative victory- more people became unemployed, cuts money in other places, homes/towns/transport etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ people become on strike. Thatcher was elected for government in 1979; her intensions were to Ã¢â¬Å"roll back the stateÃ¢â¬ her government was all about making Ã¢â¬Å"cutsÃ¢â¬ and reducing the public spending to its minimum to allow tax cuts and especially to bring down the rates of income tax. In the first few years of thatcherÃ¢â¬â¢s government more and more people became unemployed. The labour government were elected in May 1997, it was made clear that reform was needed, labour were determ ined not to increase the income on tax rates, labour needed to make a turning point within the welfare state after taking over from the thatcher government and four of the main themes that seemed to stand out the most towards the welfare state were an attempt to control public spending, privatisation, targeting and the rising in equality. This new government tried to turn new corners with these four issues. The public spending was to be held for 2 years and the income tax was not to be increased. More money was being spent on the new deal instead to bring down the unemployment levels, and this was initially aimed towards the younger unemployed. 1997-1998 budgets had become higher, meaning that more money was spent on health and education that was planned originally. In October 1998 free funding for university education came into place, but was placed on a means-tested basis for those students who were from poor families, students could access different loans, a grant to help with li ving cost, and a system was set up that allowed the loans to be paid back by a percentage of the students future income (Deacon 2002). Some changes that have occurred from 1970s and onwards ,lone parent families had risen from twelve percent to twenty- three percent between the years of 1979-1995, 80% of these lone parents were dependent on the lowest income benefit from the state and this was known as income support. Public spending had been reduced due to the fact of national income nearly reaching 50 percent in the years 1975-1976. By 1991 18.5 percent of the population were made up from the elderly, (65 years of age for men) and (60 years of age for the women) this had risen by 1971. This wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the only problem that had occurred there was great concern for the state pensions but also the health service including personal social services and nursing homes for pensioners over the age of 85 as this population was increasing fast. (Deacon 2002). Hayek and Friedman Ã¢â¬â Argue that the state should be reduced to its minimum as we have become slaves to the state, the welfare state is breaking down communities, people are depending too much on the state for money, state involvement undermines the dynamic force within society by interfering with the market, reducing freedom. The welfare state has taken away community networks and left people reliant on the state. Great rise in unemployment, prices drop and this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t good for the economy. Rise in low paid work, casual work and women will work for less. Welfare dependency- poor are being blamed- they all have the dole and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the reason the economy has gone into decline (Alcock 2000). Here are some of the things that the labour government have achieved since the ending of the World War 2. The labour government got victory and won the election over the conservatives, under the leadership of Clement Attlee, whom promised to tackle Beveridges Ã¢â¬Å"Big GiantsÃ¢â¬ . What labour did for Want was in 1946 the national insurance act came about and benefits were given to the unemployed, pregnant women, pensions for the retired and allowances for the sick, widowed and mothers. 1946 the industrial injuries act, this provided compensation to workers that had been injured. 1948 national assistance act this helped the poorest people within society, poor law, the workhouse and the unemployment assistant boards were scrapped. The things labour did for Ignorance 1994 education act was put forward by the conservatives this was to enable free education for primary and secondary schools for all children, the school leaving age is 15 years of age but later was moved to 16 there was nÃ¢â¬â¢t enough money for this to happen at this time so this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t agreed until 1947 when labour passed this act into law. Ignorance And Idleness employment and training act 1948 this established a new workforce, gave funding for school leavers and de mobbed servicemen to train as they had no training for a job after returning from the army. Aimed at regenerating areas of previously high unemployment industrial areas, Squalor 1946/1949 housing acts gave financial help to local authorities to rebuild cities that had been damaged during the war. Between 1945/1949 1.25 million permanent new homes were built. And this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t include the temporarily houses. 1946/1949 rent control act tenants interest were put above there landlords. 1946 new towns act, 14 new towns were to be built. Disease 1948 National Health Service act this was probably one of the biggest to be tackled by labour government. Free accessible health care system to benefit all individuals this began in July 1948. By 1949 8.5 million people had received free dental care, 5.75 million pair of glasses had been issued and 187 million prescriptions had been dispensed. All of these proved to be very expensive, the initial annual budget was to be 187 million but the actual cost per year was 355 million. In 1951 charges were brought in for some services such as dental, eye care and prescriptions. (Chandler 2002). The Crisis is economic, political, social and internal contradictions. The welfare state went into crisis for these four reasons politically the welfare state wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t affordable. In conclusion to this assignment it would be fair to say that quite a lot of things have happened with the welfare state over the years, there are a mix of judgements of what the welfare should be doing or rather what it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be, for example the new right believe that the welfare state is economically damaging. The issues that have been explored within this assignment are more or less to do with means and ends. It would be fair to say that a majority of individuals or if not all would prefer to live in a society with equality, opportunities, more choice and freedom. The state should be used for common purposes such as protection, health care and education, a large amount of people depend on the welfare state too much and maybe it needs to take a step back. Bibliography http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/5553/1/Thatcherism_New_Labour_and_the_Welfare_State.pdf accessed 06/05/2011 Alcock C (et al) (2000) Introducing Social Policy,Prentice Hall Beveridge, W.H. (1942) Social Insurance and Allied Services, Cmd 6404, HMSO:London. Chandler, M (2002) Britain In The Age Of Total War 1939-45, Heinemann Educational Publishers George V, Wilding P (1994) Welfare And Ideology Pearson Education Limited. Deacon P (2002) Perspectives on welfare Buckingham: Open University Press Midwinter E (1994) The Development of Social Welfare in Britain. Buckingham: Open University Press
Monday, November 4, 2019
Strategic Operations Management - Essay Example Hayes (p 10) says that operations role is bigger than that of just implementer of strategy. It is here that new ideas emerge, new knowledge, capabilities and learnings are getting acquired. New strategies are often arising even as one is being implemented. Emergent sense of what the strategy should be will come from the experiences and feedback from its operating staff based on which mid course strategy corrections could be done. An operations strategy is never complete without an appropriate implementation plan. The viability of strategy depends crucially on the manner of its implementation; a sound implementation can salvage poor strategy and best of strategies can be wrecked by bad implementation (Bettley et al). For this the plan must be clearly articulated, along with a monitoring plan. It will clearly communicate to the operations team the rationale behind the plan, the role of different functions, linkage between functional goals and strategy, clarity on concepts like market qualifiers and market winners and also the tradeoffs assumed. It will clearly communicate the start, timelines outcomes and the action needed by each function. It will be clear about resource allocation and plans for filling in gaps (for example new training in customer handling, training for use of new IT technology, etc). For instance the strategy may call for greater outsourcing instead of manufacturing which may mean smaller b udgets and dash hopes of expansion for the manufacturing department. The rationale behind this will need to be clearly communicated. Finally it will have a clear implementation agenda on when to start, where to start, the pace of implementation, how it will be coordinated and by whom. For the operations strategy to be successful, it would need to be a collaborative effort. OS should not follow a top-down approach alone; it should be predominantly bottom-up. For one it would help in drawing upon the knowledge and experience of the operations team. It will also be a sure method of communicating to the operations team the business strategy the organisation is following. It will be the surest way to ensure appropriateness of the strategy because operations manager will be able to see the fit better than anyone else and come out with gaps and shortcomings of the resources to meet the strategy. This approach would also ensure the ease and speed of implementation as much of the details of the plan are already considerably internalised by the operations team. Sadler (2000) says that a suitable planning process involving busy managers who are highly focussed on operations and a facilitator would greatly increase the chance of success of implementation of operations strategy. Friend (p 247) says that strategy so developed has to be communicated to the operations team in a way that they will take ownership of the implementation. Developing and communicating the plan will avoid "organisational myopia", i.e., inability to see between their own functional departments. It will also avoid unwanted grouse some functional personal may develop because they feel that their department has been neglected. Friend also says that a process developed in a collaborative manner
Saturday, November 2, 2019
People and organization management- leadership - Essay Example The transactional leadership approach Ã¢â¬Å"works through creating clear structures whereby it is clear what is required of their subordinates, and the rewards that they get for following ordersÃ¢â¬ ("Changing Minds"). This theory focuses on the interaction between the leaders and Subordinates.Ã It is rely on the concept that a leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s role is to let his followers to know clearly what he expect from them, this theory uses the rewards and punishments approaches for getting these prospects.Ã 8 The servant leadership model is one of the less mainstream leadership models. This theory believes that leaders have to put the interest of followers, customers, and the society ahead of their own benefit to get the success (Stevens 2003). The principle of this theory has a huge amount of recognition within leadership circles and it is described as a set of beliefs and morals that leaders are willing to embrace them. 8 There are many benefits of democratic leadership. By adopting this style of leadership better ideas and more creative solutions for the problems can take place. Group members also feel more touched by the higher management, involved and devoted to projects, all these making them more likely to care about the end outcome. Researches show that democratic style has a result to elevated productivity among group members. Empirical studies have even indicated that individuals with high self-esteem prefer democratic leadership models (Schoel, Bluemke, et al. 2011) Still, there are also downsides of democratic leadership. Even if this style has been described as the most successful and effective leadership style, it has a few downsides. In cases where roles are undefined and unclear or time is essential democratic leadership can lead to communication failures and incomplete tasks. In some situation, group members may not have the appropriate knowledge or skill to make quality contributions to the decision-making process. 14 In the modern world one often hears about